Campbell joined the programme - which sees hopeful entrepreneurs pitch their business ideas to wealthy investors - in 2017.
During her time in the Den, she has made several investments, including a gin business, an energy-switch website and a hemp skincare producer.
She will leave at the end of the current series to focus on other projects, including helping her sons with their own businesses.
Campbell said: “Having been a fan of Dragons’ Den since it first aired in 2005 I was absolutely delighted and proud to have the opportunity of becoming a Dragon myself.
“I have invested in businesses and entrepreneurs who I believe I can add real value to personally, and I look forward to working with each of them closely over the next few years.
“It has been a tough decision to step down but I now want to focus on my new role with the Prince’s Trust Enterprise Fellowship Programme which supports young entrepreneurs in setting up and growing their own businesses, as well as help my sons Rik and Tom on their own entrepreneurial journeys.”
BBC Two controller Patrick Holland said: “Jenny has been a brilliant dragon and the audience have loved her sharp analysis and cutting wit. I want to thank her and wish her all the best with her next ventures.
“Dragons’ Den continues to be a foundation stone for the BBC Two schedule with a re-energised visual approach, going from strength to strength with over 2.6 million viewers watching every week, and I look forward to the next Dragon to step into the Den.”
Campbell is the founder and chief executive of YourCash, a cash machine company.
Her last episode of Dragons’ Den will air on Sunday February 3.
Casting for a new Dragon will take place this spring ahead of filming for the 17th series, the BBC said.
The other Dragons in the current series include long-time stars Deborah Meaden and Peter Jones.