The human rights organisation said that at least 540 frontline staff have died after contracting the virus in England and Wales - second only to Russia, which has recorded 545 deaths.
Data from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) shows that 268 deaths involving Covid-19 among social care workers were registered in England and Wales between March 9 and May 25.
In the same period, the ONS reported that 272 deaths involving the virus were registered among healthcare staff, including doctors, nurses and midwives, nurse assistants, paramedics and ambulance staff, and hospital porters.
Amnesty International said it has analysed data, which found that more 3,000 health workers have died after contracting Covid-19 in 79 countries.
It added that this figure is likely to be a “significant under-estimate” due to under-reporting, while noting that the UK is one of few countries to distinguish between deaths of social care workers and healthcare workers - increasing the total relative to other nations.
Reporters have confirmed the names of 195 health and social care workers who have died after contracting Covid-19 since the start of the outbreak.
Kate Allen, Amnesty International UK’s director, said: “We have to understand whether these deaths were avoidable, and what led to this terrible outcome.
“There appears to have been a catastrophic failure to provide proper PPE (personal protective equipment) and a failure to grapple with the alarmingly high death rates among BAME (black, Asian and minority ethnic) health workers. This crisis is far from over and an independent inquiry into the Government’s handling of the coronavirus pandemic is urgently needed.”
The human rights organisation called for an “urgent public inquiry” into the Government’s handling of the crisis, to ensure that “lessons are learned and that there is proper accountability”.
Ministers came under criticism at the start of the Covid-19 pandemic over supplies of PPE, such as masks and gowns, after healthcare workers reported shortages.
In May, a survey by the British Medical Association (BMA) found that almost half of doctors had sourced their own equipment or relied on a donation when none was available.
Meanwhile, social care providers raised concerns over insufficient equipment in settings, as well as a lack of testing for staff and residents in the early stages of the pandemic.
Some two billion items of PPE have been provided to healthcare workers, while 28bn items have been ordered to provide a continuous supply to meet the future needs, the Government said.