Yorkshire is among one of four areas where the new programmes have been tried out, alongside Leicester, London and Greater Manchester.
People who have been diagnosed with the disease are being given the option of entering into a 'prehab' regime of three fitness sessions a week, including a mix of high intensity cardio workouts and strength-based training.
Alongside physical exercise, patients are also able to receive nutritional advice and mental health support - all of which can help reduce the side effects of chemotherapy and the amount of time spent in hospital, doctors said.
"Cancer treatments now work better than ever, but they can really take a toll on your body," NHS chief executive Simon Stevens said.
"So there's increasing evidence that it's really worth trying to get match fit ahead of chemo or major surgery. In effect you are 'priming' your own recovery before your treatment even begins."
Wedding venue objects to plans for new 70-bedroom hotel in East YorkshireThank you to dedicated NHS staff on duty in A&E every day - Yorkshire Post lettersMore than 500 people have already taken part in Greater Manchester, with a further 2,000 expected to take part over the next two years.
Patient David Fowles entered into the 'prehab' programme this year.
"If someone had told me in February... that I would be going to the gym, I'd have laughed at them," the 68-year-old retiree said.
"My consultant asked if I would like to give it a go, explaining the idea that if you're fit before surgery, it will get you out of hospital quicker, so I said yes.
"The surgery was quite daunting and took 10.5 hours. I was told I'd be in hospital for two, three or four weeks. Well, I was out within nine days. I couldn't believe it. All this is down to the fitness regime - it's been marvellous.
"I've just had a new grandson arrive in February, he's also inspired me and I want to get better to see him - that's encouraged me to get moving."