The Most Rev Justin Welby will travel to the seat of the Catholic Church for his third formal meeting with the Pope since 2013.
It will be part of a week-long summit celebrating the close relationship between the Anglican Communion and Roman Catholic Church.
There will be a service at the church of San Gregorio al Cielo jointly led by the Archbishop and Pope Francis on Wednesday.
They will also commission 19 pairs of Anglican and Roman Catholic bishops from around the world.
The summit is being held to mark the 50th anniversary of the Anglican Centre in Rome, which was established after a historic meeting between Archbishop Michael Ramsey and Pope Paul VI.
Archbishop Welby will wear a papal ring that was presented to his predecessor during the visit in 1966.
Archbishop David Moxon, director of the Anglican centre, said: “The Anglican Centre has worked for fifty years to help Roman Catholics and Anglicans work together, pray together, study and talk together.
“These celebrations mark the writing of a new chapter in the history of the Christian Church.”