The 29-year-old was attacked outside the Bagshaw Arms in Norton Avenue, Norton, at around 9.30pm yesterday.
His injuries are not believed to be life threatening.
A 31-year-old man was arrested on suspicion of attempted murder and remains in police custody this morning.
The pub has been sealed off and is under police guard this morning as police inquiries into the incident are carried out.
A South Yorkshire Police spokeswoman said: "At around 9.30pm last night, officers responded to reports of a group of men involved in an altercation outside the Bagshaw Arms on Norton Avenue, Sheffield.
"During the incident, a 29-year-old man suffered a stab wound to his chest and was taken to hospital to receive treatment. His injuries are not thought to be life threatening.
"A 31-year-old man was arrested on suspicion of attempted murder and currently remains in police custody.
"Officers have launched an investigation into the incident and are asking for anyone who was in the area at the time, or who witnessed anything that may be able to assist their enquiries, to report it."
Anyone with information should call South Yorkshire Police on 101 or Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111.