Zain Malik was jailed for 12 months after a court heard how the victim was injured as he tried to stop him leaving the store on Viaduct Street, near Huddersfield town centre.
Leeds Crown Court heard Malik targeted the store on eight occasions between January and March this year to steal high-value bottles of alcohol to fund his addiction to crack cocaine.
The court heard the security guard feared his arm was going to "snap off" during the struggle with the defendant.
He was taken to hospital where he had to undergo an emergency operation after the arm was broken in two places.
The victim, a student, was left in severe pain and will not be able to complete his degree course this year due to the injury.
He described in a victim statement how the incident had also left him fearful of returning to work.
Malik was arrested after the attack but continued to shoplift at the store when he was released on bail.
During eight offences he stole 11 bottles of Champagne.
Malik also stole bottles of Jack Daniels, marmalade vodka, Southern Comfort, Glenlivet whisky and Courvoisier.
He was the subject of a community order at the time of the offences for stealing from a Sainsbury's store.
The 25-year-old, of Leeds Road, pleaded guilty to assault occasioning actual bodily harm and eight offences of theft.
Andrea Parnham, mitigating, said Malik committed the offences in order to sell the alcohol to buy crack cocaine.
Ms Parham said Malk turned to the drug when his life spiralled out of control when he suffered burns in an arson attack on his home in 2018 and had also split up with his partner.