Emergency services were called at around 1.20am to High Street, Askern, following reports a man had been seriously assaulted outside the White Hart pub.
He was taken to hospital with life-threatening injuries where he remains in a critical condition, South Yorkshire Police said.
A 34-year-old man has been arrested on suspicion of attempted murder and is currently in custody being questioned by officers.
The A19 to Askern from Doncaster is closed from the junction with Station Road and the A19 while police carry out enquiries.
Diversions are in place and motorists are advised to plan alternative routes where possible.
Police have appeared to anyone who was in High Street last night or in the early hours of this morning and witnessed the assault to get in touch.
Call 101 quoting incident number 80 of 30 May 2016. You can also email [email protected] or call Crimestoppers anonymously on 0800 555 111.