The crash happened on the B1220 Hampole Balk Lane at around 12.45am on Saturday and involved a red Fiat Punto, driven by a 19-year-old man.
The pedestrian suffered serious head injuries and was taken to Northern General Hospital in Sheffield where he died on Sunday.
The driver of the Fiat was not injured. No one has been arrested in connection with the incident.
The victim has been named on a social network as father-of-two Daniel Cooke, although police have not formally identified him. One message left online said: “Rest in peace Cookie, you’ll always be remembered, especially your cheeky sense of humour. I’m so sad you’ve been taken from us.”
Anyone who saw the incident should call South Yorkshire Police on 101.