The former English National Defence (EDL) leader, real name Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, faces an allegation he committed contempt by filming people in a criminal trial and broadcasting footage on social media.
Two judges gave permission for a new case to be brought against him at the Old Bailey in London on Tuesday, following an application by the Attorney General Geoffrey Cox QC.
Robinson was jailed for 13 months in May last year after he filmed people involved in a criminal trial at Leeds Crown Court and broadcast the footage on social media.
But a contempt finding made against Robinson was quashed by the Court of Appeal in August and he was freed from prison after serving two months of his sentence.
The case was then referred back to the Attorney General, who announced in March that it was in the public interest to bring fresh proceedings against Robinson.
The 36-year-old, from Luton, could be sent back to jail if he is again found in contempt, which carries a maximum sentence of two years.
Crowds gathered outside court ahead of the hearing in support of Robinson, who is standing for election as an MEP for the North West region in the European elections later this month, as well as a counter demonstration organised by Stand Up To Racism.
After the court's decision was announced, the crowd booed and chanted "shame on you".
Lady Justice Sharp said permission would be given for fresh proceedings to go ahead on all grounds.
She said reasons for the decision would be given at a later date.