The black Corsa was travelling along Hatfield Lane, Armthorpe, in the direction of Barnby Dun, when it collided with a blue Ford Mondeo being driven in the opposite direction.
The Corsa is then believed to have been involved in a further collision with a black BMW 5 series.
A passenger in the Corsa, a 19-year-old Doncaster man, suffered injuries that proved fatal.
Two other passengers in the same car were also injured – an 18-year-old man was taken to hospital with serious injuries and a second man, aged 19, suffered minor injuries.
The drivers of each vehicle were not believed to have been injured.
Witnesses to the incident, which occurred at around 9pm on Friday, are asked to contact South Yorkshire Police on 101 quoting incident number 1122 of 15 April 2016.