Secondary school maths lessons have changed little over time, with pupils still spending time copying down notes and listening to the teacher talk, a study has found.
It reveals that maths classes in the 21st century still rely on traditional teaching methods, with little time for interactive activities, or chances for students to relate the subject to real-life situations.
Researchers at Manchester University suggest that time constraints and pressure to prepare for exams are putting schools off trying less traditional methods of teaching.
But the paper argues that pupils who do face conventional maths lessons that focus on note-taking and following instructions are more likely to be turned off the subject.
The study, funded by the Economics and Social Research Council, is based on a survey of 13,516 pupils and 128 teachers.