Around 30 hectares of woods will be formed across 17 sites in the city, which is already one of the greenest in Europe and was last year recognised as the outdoor capital of the UK.
The green spaces, which will be accessible to the public, will also include open areas with footpaths and woodland.
Tim Shortland, community forestry manager at Sheffield City Council, said: “Sheffield’s existing woodlands are renowned nationally, but many are in decline and despite being of great value to people and wildlife alike will not last forever.
“The establishment of new woodland will perpetuate this amazing woodland legacy for future generations and, in the shorter term, will provide a diversity of habitats for wildlife.”
The Forestry Commission will fund the project, at a cost of around £136,000.
Planting will begin at Worral Recreation Ground, off Worrall Road, this Saturday.
Two hundred native broadleaf trees will be planted in the park in the first stage and a further 1,160 at a later date.
Worral Environmental Group, local residents and children will help to plant them but volunteers are also welcome between 10.30am and 2pm.
Other sites where new woodland will be created include Greenhill and Longley parks.