The man's injuries have been described by South Yorkshire Police as 'potentially serious'.
He has been taken to the Northern General Hospital for treatment.
All three southbound lanes of the M1 between junction 31 for Aston and Worksop and 33 for Catcliffe were closed for a time, and several lane closures remain in place.
Two southbound lanes of the M18 are also closed between junction 1 and junction 32 of the M1 at Thurcroft.
There are long delays, with queues building up.
There is congestion in surrounding areas including Aston, Bramley and Whiston.
The Parkway in Sheffield and Rotherway in Rotherham are also affected.