Ministers said they had imposed “significant new safeguards” for future foreign investment in critical infrastructure.
A statement said: “Following a comprehensive review of the Hinkley Point C project, and a revised agreement with EDF, the Government has decided to proceed with the first new nuclear power station for a generation.
“However, ministers will impose a new legal framework for future foreign investment in Britain’s critical infrastructure, which will include nuclear energy and apply after Hinkley.”
Greg Clark, Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, said: “Having thoroughly reviewed the proposal for Hinkley Point C, we will introduce a series of measures to enhance security and will ensure Hinkley cannot change hands without the Government’s agreement.
“Consequently, we have decided to proceed with the first new nuclear power station for a generation.
“Britain needs to upgrade its supplies of energy and we have always been clear that nuclear is an important part of ensuring our future low-carbon energy security.”
Ministers said the agreement “in principle” with EDF means that the Government will be able to prevent the sale of the French firm’s controlling stake before completion of construction, without the prior notification and agreement of ministers.
The agreement will be confirmed in an exchange of letters between the Government and EDF.
“Existing legal powers, and the new legal framework, will mean that the Government is able to intervene in the sale of EDF’s stake once Hinkley is operational,” the Government statement added.
“The new legal framework for future foreign investment in British critical infrastructure will mean that after Hinkley, the British Government will take a special share in all future nuclear new build projects.
“This will ensure that significant stakes cannot be sold without the Government’s knowledge or consent.
“The Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) will be directed to require notice from developers or operators of nuclear sites of any change of ownership or part-ownership.
“This will allow the Government to advise or direct the ONR to take action to protect national security as a result of a change in ownership.”
Unions welcomed the announcement, saying 25,000 jobs will be created by the project.
Unite national officer for energy Kevin Coyne said: “Our members are shovel ready and dead keen to start work on the country’s first nuclear power station for a generation.
“It is excellent news that that the uncertainty caused by Theresa May’s decision to put Hinkley Point ‘on hold’ has now been dispelled and that the Government recognises the role of nuclear in a mixed energy economy.
“It means that the lights will remain on in the UK in the decades ahead and it heralds an economic renaissance for the West Country, with the accompanying creation of thousands of skilled jobs and the positive ripple effects to the supply chain across the UK.
“It is especially heartening that the new jobs will include 500 much-needed apprenticeships.
“This was the first big litmus test for big infrastructure projects, following June’s EU referendum and shows that there is the appetite for giving the green light for such projects that the UK so desperately needs for its future economic prosperity.”
A state-backed Chinese firm has a third stake in Hinkley and is pressing to build other new nuclear power stations in the UK including Bradwell in Essex.
Justin Bowden, GMB National Secretary for Energy, said: “Giving the thumbs-up to Hinkley is vital to fill the growing hole in the UK’s energy supply needs.
“It will be a big relief for the 25,000 quality jobs which were put at risk by the latest delay, never mind the reputational damage inflicted on UK plc.
“GMB has always had reservations about linking Bradwell and Sizewell with the contract for Hinkley. The Government should never have allowed the country to be held over a Chinese barrel.”