The result was 306 to 325, giving Theresa May a reasonably comfortable margin of 19. The DUP - which props up Mrs May’s minority government - sided with the Tories, as promised.
Ahead of the vote, MPs gave their views on the Prime Minister’s leadership in a six-hour Commons debate, and here are some of the stand out contributions.
Opening the debate…
Jeremy Corbyn said: "The Prime Minister has consistently claimed that her deal, which has been decisively rejected, was good for Britain workers and business… she should have nothing to fear by going to the people."
Theresa May said: "Should the next step be a general election? I believe that is the worst thing we could do. It would deepen division when we need unity. It would bring chaos when we need certainty. And it would bring delay when we need to move forward.
"I believe this House should reject this motion. At this crucial moment in our nation's history, a general election is simply not in the national interest."
Closing the debate....
For Labour, Deputy Leader Tom Watson said: "The country feels genuinely sorry for the Prime Minister, but she cannot confuse pity for political legitimacy, sympathy for political support."
For the Government, Environment Secretary Michael Gove said: "While we are standing up for national security, what about Mr Corbyn? He wants to leave Nato, he wants to get rid of our nuclear deterrent. And recently he said in a speech, why do countries boast about the size of their armies? That is quite wrong, why don't we emulate Costa Rica, that has no army at all? No allies, no deterrent, no army, no way can this country ever allow that man to be our Prime Minister."
During the debate Yorkshire’s Labour MPs spoke out against the Government.
Bradford West MP Naz Shah said: “This government isn’t fit for purpose when programmes like I,Daniel Blake is many people’s reality and no longer a fiction. This government has consistently acted in the interests of the few and not the many, offering tax giveaways to the rich while viciously cutting services for the most vulnerable in this country.
"The government wasn't fit for purpose when the Prime Minister knew her deal was dead before recess and yet chose to sabotage and hold parliament hostage by delaying the vote and the list goes on.
“Those 117 of my colleagues across the benches - when they voted that this Prime Minister was not fit to govern - how can they go back to the electorate and say that this Prime Minister is now fit to lead the country?”
Hull West and Hessle MP Emma Hardy said: “Across Yorkshire there has been a 30% increase in the number of suicides. My constituency covers the Humber Bridge and I have mentioned this before - the Humber Bridge has become a hot spot for suicides - people coming from around the country to take their own lives. What greater damning indictment of this government can there be that they have left people in such a state of despair?”
Responding to the result…
Theresa May said: “We will return to the House on Monday to table an amendable motion and to make a statement about the way forward. The House has put its confidence in this government, I stand ready to work with any member of this House to deliver Brexit and to ensure this House retains the confidence of the British people.”
Jeremy Corbyn replied: “Last night the House rejected the governments deal, emphatically. A week ago the House voted to condemn the idea of a no deal Brexit, before there can be any positive discussions about the way forward the government must remove, clearly and once and for all, the prospect of the catastrophe of no deal and all the chaos that would come as a result of that and I invite the prime minister to confirm now that the government will not countenance a no deal Brexit from the European Union.”