South Yorkshire Police said three men threatened members of staff in the raid at Heron Foods on Saturday before driving off in a dark grey Audi A7.
CCTV images of two of the robbers captured at the shop in Doncaster Road, East Dene, have been released by South Yorkshire Police.
A South Yorkshire Police spokeswoman said: "Officers investigating a robbery at Heron Foods in Rotherham are appealing for anyone who may recognise these men, or witnessed the robbery to contact police.
"It was reported at around 8pm on Saturday, three men, armed with what is believed to have been crowbars and a sledgehammer, broke into the store on Doncaster Road in East Dene and threatened staff before making off with a large quantity of cash and food stamps.
"The offenders are believed to have made away from the scene in a dark grey Audi A7.
"No one was hurt in the incident but damage was caused to the store and the employees were left frightened and distressed.
"Officers investigating the reported burglary have carried out extensive enquiries and have now released the images of these men as they believe they will be able to assist them with their enquiries.
"Do you recognise the men pictured? Did you witness the reported robbery or a grey Audi leaving the scene?"
Anyone with information should call South Yorkshire Police on 101.