Officers were called to Manor Road, Rothwell, at 10.46pm.
A West Yorkshire Police spokesman said: "A red Volkswagen Passat was found to have been extensively damaged after some type of device was thrown into it while it was parked. No-one was injured.
"The vehicle has been recovered from the scene for forensic examination and enquiries are ongoing into the incident, which is believed to have been targeted."
Anyone who witnessed the incident or who has any information that could assist the investigation is asked to contact Leeds District CID via 101 quoting crime reference 13180528354 or call the independent charity Crimestoppers anonymously on 0800 555 111.