The woman was injured in an altercation that took place in Gibbons Drive, Gleadless at around 12.05am on Sunday.
Detectives charged the boy, who cannot be named for legal reasons, with attempted murder and possession of an offensive weapon yesterday.
He appeared at Sheffield Magistrates' Court charged with the offences this morning.
Dressed in jeans and a t-shirt, the boy sobbed throughout most of the brief hearing.
District Judge Paul Heeley sent the case to to Sheffield Crown Court, and ordered for the boy to be held on remand until the next hearing date which is yet to be fixed.
A 27-year-old man arrested in connection with Sunday's altercation has been released without charge.
The injured woman remains in a serious but stable condition in hospital, police confirmed this afternoon.