Nottinghamshire Police said the child, who was from Yorkshire, was in a family car which was in collision with a truck on the motorway on Wednesday.
A spokesman said it happened on the northbound carriageway between junctions 26 and 27, just north of Nottingham.
The girl was taken to hospital but was pronounced dead shortly after arriving.
He said: "Were you in the area at the time? Did you see the crash but couldn't stop?
"If anyone has any information, or any dashcam footage, please call us on 101, quoting incident number 487 of August 22, 2018."