The 27-year-old was a rear seat passenger in a Peugeot 307 which crashed into a tree after coming off the B6422 Hemsworth Road on Monday evening.
He suffered life threatening injuries to his head and is in a critical but stable condition at Leeds General Infirmary.
A 17-year-old man, who was driving the car, and a 16-year-old man, who was a fellow passenger, also suffered serious injuries in the collision and are being treated in hospital.
Police said the car came off the road on a bend and hit a tree as it was heading towards South Kirkby at around 6.17pm last night.
A West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service spokeswoman said one of the men got out of the wreckage of the car before crews arrived at the scene.
Firefighters rescued the other two from the vehicle.
Police at The Safer Roads and Neighbourhood Support Team are appealing for witnesses to come forward.
Anyone with information is asked to contact PC 264 Wilson on 101 referencing police log 1254.