Officers from South Yorkshire Police set up a cordon and closed Broom Valley Road, in Broom, this morning.
Chemical substances were found at the address, and are being analysed, although there is not thought to be any risk to the wider community.
Six fire appliances, with 30 firefighters on board, were sent to the property “as a precaution”. There were also five officers at the scene.
The arrested man is in police custody and will be questioned by detectives. The police cordon remains in place.
A South Yorkshire Police spokeswoman said: “A police-led operation, supported by officers from South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue, Yorkshire Ambulance Service and Rotherham Council, is currently under way at a property in Broom Valley Road, Broom, in connection with alleged drug production.
“There are believed to be chemical substances at the address so the road has been closed and a cordon put in place while police carry out their enquiries.”