At 2.50pm on Monday a member of the public reported hearing a disturbance on Copley Hill, Wortley.
He heard people shouting and arguing and then saw a woman, who he had seen running in the street shortly before, being driven off in a distressed state in the back of a Mercedes car, officers said.
Police said the Mercedes A-Class, registration YD67AJV, was recovered in Nottinghamshire.
Four men have been arrested in connection with the incident and were last night in custody.
Detective Inspector Richard Holmes, of Leeds District CID, said: “We are trying to establish the full circumstances surrounding this incident and are appealing for anyone with information to contact us.
“We are also appealing directly to the woman who was seen in the car. If that was you, we would like to hear from you so that we can confirm you are okay.
“It may well be that there is an explanation for what was seen and it could potentially have been some sort of domestic-related incident.
“We are continuing to carry out enquiries to satisfy ourselves that there are no wider issues and would urge anyone with information to contact us.”
Anyone with information is asked to contact Leeds District CID via 101 quoting reference number 13180154833 or call the independent charity Crimestoppers anonymously on 0800 555 111.