England have five one-day matches against the world champions followed by a solitary Twenty20 match, with the tour getting under way with the first of two warm-up fixtures on October 8.
The England and Wales Cricket Board have confirmed that Pietersen has been included in the 15-man squad, which includes uncapped Surrey pace bowler Stuart Meaker.
Meaker, 22, was called to the Oval last week to join with the squad in the nets and has done enough to impress the selectors.
The one surprising omission from the squad is Anderson, who has been rested for the forthcoming tour.
“This squad contains an exciting balance of experienced international cricketers along with some very talented younger players who can play the high quality limited overs cricket needed to challenge India,” said national selector Geoff Miller.
“A number of injuries and a decision to omit James Anderson in line with our policy of sensibly managing player workloads give opportunities for other very talented players to continue to develop as international cricketers.
“We had a promising One-Day series win over India earlier this month and this squad will be looking forward to the challenge of continuing that success in the sub-continent over the next four weeks.
“The additions to the squad for the Twenty20 fixture will strengthen the squad and provide Jos Buttler and Alex Hales with valuable experience of playing in the sub-continent.
“Stuart Broad is currently undergoing a period of rehabilitation for a shoulder injury. However he will join the squad in India if he completes his rehabilitation programme ahead of schedule. Graeme Swann will once again lead the Twenty20 side if Stuart is unable to join the squad.”
While Anderson’s omission will receive headlines, much of the talk ahead of the announcement surrounded Pietersen’s potential inclusion.
There were rumours following the World Cup that he intended to retire from 50-over cricket - strongly denied by the player, who was nevertheless rested from the home India one-day series, the one-off clash with Ireland and the two Twenty20 fixtures against the West Indies.
There had been suggestions that Pietersen’s sabbatical could be extended until next year but the Surrey batsman has been included in the squad.
Another notable addition to the squad is Meaker, who has spent the last two winters on the Fast Bowling Programme.
The Durban-born batsman made his debut for England Lions against Sri Lanka A this summer and has now received his first senior call-up.
Warwickshire all-rounder Chris Woakes and Durham’s Scott Borthwick have also been included having not been involved in this month’s ODI series win over India.
However, the latter’s team-mate Ben Stokes has not been selected in order for the 20-year-old to undergo a rehabilitation programme on a finger injury.
Buttler of Somerset and Nottinghamshire’s Hales will join the squad ahead of the Twenty20 fixture on October 29.
England: A Cook (Essex, captain), J Bairstow (Yorkshire), I Bell (Warwickshire), R Bopara (Essex), S Borthwick (Durham), T Bresnan (Yorkshire), J Dernbach (Surrey), S Finn (Middlesex), C Kieswetter (Somerset), S Meaker (Surrey), S Patel (Nottinghamshire), K Pietersen (Surrey), G Swann (Nottinghamshire), J Trott (Warwickshire), C Woakes (Warwickshire).
J Buttler (Somerset) and A Hales (Nottinghamshire) join the squad for the T20 fixture.