Broad took the fourth -best figures of his career and then smacked a 41-ball half-century but it was all in vain as Yorkshire won by an innings and eight runs with a day to spare.
Notts were bowled out for 198 in their second innings at shortly before 5.30pm on Wednesday.
Earlier, Broad gave England a boost ahead of the Ashes by taking the fourth-best figures of his career.
Broad captured 7-84 from 26.4 overs as Yorkshire scored 430 in reply to Notts’ first innings 224.
At tea on day three, Notts were 108-7 in their second innings, still 98 runs behind.
Broad claimed the last two wickets of the Yorkshire first innings after the champions resumed on 418-8 after lunch.
The pace bowler had Jack Brooks caught at first slip by Brendan Taylor and then pinned his former team-mate Ryan Sidebottom lbw first ball.
Tim Bresnan finished unbeaten on 52 from 77 balls with nine fours.
Beneath overcast skies, Sidebottom got to work as he reduced Notts to 20-2 inside five overs.
The former England left-armer struck with the third ball of the innings when he had Brendan Taylor caught by James Middlebrook in the gully for a duck.
And he followed up by having Steven Mullaney caught behind by Jonny Bairstow for nine.
Steve Patterson got in on the act when he pinned James Taylor lbw for six, and Bresnan bagged two wickets in quick succession as Yorkshire steadily turned the screw.
Bresnan had Riki Wessels caught behind for 16 and then removed former Yorkshire batsman Michael Lumb lbw for 47.
Notts fell to 88-6 when Brooks struck with the first ball of his second spell, Will Gidman flicking to Gary Ballance in the square-leg region.
And they lost their seventh wicket on the stroke of tea when Sidebottom had Samit Patel brilliantly caught by Alex Lees moving to his left at first slip.