A daring innings of 84 not out from only 24 deliveries from Bairstow featured six fours and eight sixes as his Kerala Knights team eased past a victory target of 124 with seven wickets and eight balls to spare.
Bairstow’s knock overhauled the previous record, which was registered only last week by Afghanistan wicketkeeper Mohammad Shahzad, who thrashed an unbeaten 74 from only 16 balls.
The Yorkshireman had linked up with England’s limited-overs captain Eoin Morgan for Kerala after a bittersweet few weeks in Sri Lanka.
An ankle injury meant he missed out on the Test series opener in Galle before he was omitted in Kandy after replacement Ben Foakes shone on debut with both bat and gloves.
Bairstow was back in Colombo as a specialist batsman only and contributed a resolute century, a knock that helped England clinch a 3-0 series whitewash on the island.
Bangladesh reached 259-5 after an encouraging first day of the first Test against West Indies in Dhaka.
Debutant Shadman Islam made a fine start to his Test career, reaching 76.