Taylor made an unbeaten 121 at Hove after being included in a 14-man squad yesterday morning for the third Ashes Test as cover for Kevin Pietersen.
The Nottinghamshire batsman, who guested in the game for Sussex following a request from the England and Wales Cricket Board, proved he is ready to play at Old Trafford by spending more than five and a half hours at the crease.
Taylor was the mainstay of the Sussex innings as they scored 368-7 from their 100 overs, a lead of two runs.
Ed Cowan made an unbeaten 77 as Australia reached 152-2 in their second innings when the teams shook hands on a draw at 5.20pm with 16 overs still to go.
Taylor needed a slice of luck to reach his 16th first-class century. Having been dropped on 23 on Saturday, he was put down again by Ashton Agar when he had scored 90.
Taylor eventually brought up his century – off 233 balls with 11 fours – by driving Nathan Lyon for four just before lunch.
It was a frustrating morning for the Australia spinner, who was looking to force his way back into the Test side, but he finally picked up a wicket when he trapped Callum Jackson lbw for 26 and ended with figures of 1-99.
Mitchell Starc (2-43) enhanced his prospects of playing at Old Trafford by ripping out the leg stump of Chris Jordan for 47 in an impressive spell and might just have the edge over Jackson Bird (2-62).
Usman Khawaja was promoted to open the batting for Australia in their second innings but missed his chance to spend some much-needed time in the middle as he was dismissed for just one. Lewis Hatchett made the breakthrough with Chris Jordan taking the catch at slip.
Phil Hughes followed up his 84 from the first innings by making 38 before being dismissed by Hatchett (2-28) for the second time in the match.
Hughes put on 85 for the second wicket with Cowan, who made his second half-century of the game with an unbeaten 77, while Matthew Wade avoided a pair by scoring 30 not out.
There was no joy for Sussex spinner Monty Panesar, who was also recalled by England yesterday, as he finished with 0-40 from 14 overs.