The Tykes lost 5-3 at Ashton Gate last season when the hosts were under the temporary guidance of Keith Millen.
Ironically, Millen is now back in charge on a permanent basis after the ill-fated two-match reign of Steve Coppell who quit last week.
Robins, who scored four goals in six games for City in 2003, said: "I know the club from my time on loan there and they have big expectations. There is a desire to get back to the Premier League and you must be a club with ambition to sign an England goalkeeper in David James.
"It was a difficult game last season, Keith had just taken over and he has just taken over again now. We know the nature of this league and have to be ready for whatever is thrown at us. Hopefully, we will do better in terms of the result."