The Seasiders coped admirably after Keith Southern was dismissed early in the first half for a careless two-footed lunge on Stephen Foster, but failed to make the breakthrough their creativity merited before the interval.
Instead, it was David Perkins who registered his first goal for Barnsley in a smash-and-grab move shortly after half-time.
But Blackpool failed to lie down and Phillips, a constant threat, finished off a flowing move to keep the Lancashire club in fifth place.
Ian Holloway’s men might even have nicked all three points but for Ian Evatt’s poor effort five minutes from time, and Barnsley held on to arrest a run of seven consecutive away defeats.
The draw leaves Barnsley eight points clear of safety in 18th spot and manager Keith Hill admitted he cannot wait for Championship football to be secured and next season to come around.
“It’s essential that we stay in the Championship and results like this, regardless of the performance, give us a great chance of doing that,” said Hill.
“We need to firm up our status and I want to put this season firmly into ‘Room 101’ and then move on to next season.
“We didn’t play the type of football that I want to play. We had a lack of culture and a lack of composure at times.
“We got a goal but still left ourselves open to Blackpool’s attacking play. We had two players chasing a piece of paper on the pitch when they scored and that cost us.
“But even with 10 men they were still an incredible force and they have a massive attacking threat and impetus.
“Even with 10 men they were prepared to flood our half with players and go one-on-one at the back.”
The main talking point of the game was Southern’s red card.
Blackpool boss Holloway said: “I am absolutely devastated with the sending-off to be honest. I felt there were two people in that challenge.
“My player put one foot in and the other put two in. I have seen it four times from a few different angles and my disgust at the decision won’t change.
“I don’t think it matters who gets there first in the tackle. It’s the intent and the purpose and two-footed is much worse than one-footed and that’s why Keith is aggrieved.”
Blackpool: Gilks, Eardley, Evatt, Baptiste, Harris, Dobbie (Sylvestre 88), Southern, Angel (Dicko 72), M Phillips, LuaLua (Ferguson 56), Ince. Unused substitutes: Crainey, Ormerod.
Barnsley: Button, Wiseman, Edwards, Foster, McNulty, Collins, O’Brien, Tonge (Higginbotham 85), Perkins, Noble-Lazarus (Cotterill 76), Nouble (Davies 77). Unused substitutes: Dawson, Gray.
Referee: A D’Urso (Essex).