Having set up two goals on his debut earlier in the week, Raphinha almost provided the winning goal after producing some dazzling skill to leave Colombia full-back Johan Mojica flat on his face in the closing stages of the contest.
The Leeds man picked the ball up on the right flank before clever footwork saw Mojica lose his footing, then as Raphinha motored to the byline the Colombia defender could not recover as he hit the turf.
Raphinha then produced a pinpoint pass across the box but his teammate could not get it under control as the chance passed. The draw was the first time Brazil had dropped points on the road to Qatar.
The Copa America runners-up had won all of their previous nine qualifiers but struggled to find their rhythm in Barranquilla on Sunday as they sit nine points clear at the top of the group.
Tite's side are back in action later this week as they host Uruguay on Thursday evening, approximately 36 hours before Leeds face Southampton in the Premier League.