Wilder had been eager to bring in a centre-half after injured Richard Stearman – himself a summer arrival at Bramall Lane – was ruled out for eight weeks.
Carter-Vickers, 19, has represented the USA at various youth levels.
He made his Tottenham debut last season in the League Cup against Gillingham at White Hart Lane.
“Cameron is young, athletic and highly-rated by Tottenham and we’re delighted we’ve been trusted to continue his development,” said Wilder.
“He is a central defender with a good attitude and adds competition for places in that area. I like the way Tottenham play and it’s clear that Cameron has the ability to be a very good player.”
Carter-Vickers has signed on a season-long loan and is eligible to make his debut against Derby County today. He joins a Blades squad with a point to prove following last season’s promotion.
The Championship newcomers have won both home games – 1-0 against both Brentford and Barnsley – to continue their fine Bramall Lane form from last term.
“We’ve got something to prove,” said Blades defender Kieron Freeman. “We want to show that, even though we’ve not been in the Championship for a while, we’re still good players too.
“We’ve been saying we’re good enough and now we’ve got to produce.
“Obviously the opposition have better individuals, but we’ve got good players as well.
“The home form will be important. We had a good home record last year as well and that always helps.
“We’ve done it by playing good football and enjoying our football. I think those are two of the reasons, and also the atmosphere the fans generate.”
The Blades have lost both away games, at Middlesbrough and Cardiff City, but have not been overawed on their return to the Championship.
Freeman added: “I think we’ve put in some really good performances and, although some of the results haven’t been what we’d have liked, I do believe that if you keep putting in a level of performance then the results do start to come.
“That’s the way I’ve always looked at things, so it’s important we try and keep that consistent level of performance.
“There’s a lot more to come from us as a team and as individuals.
“We do set our standards really high. We did that last year as well.”
Blades midfielder David Brooks – who starred with England’s youngsters in the Toulon Tournament this summer – has accepted an invite to join the Wales Under-21 squad.
The 20-year-old Warrington-born midfielder – who qualifies for Wales through his mother – is in the squad selected by ex-Blade Robert Page for next month’s UEFA Championship qualifying group matches in Switzerland and Portugal.
Brooks said: “I’m delighted with the opportunity to play for Wales – I’ve spoken to Robert Page and I’m looking forward to joining up with the squad.
“It is a boost to know my progress is being monitored at international level and it will be an honour to play for Wales – it will be a proud moment.
“My mother is Welsh, she’s from Llangollen, and I’m sure all the family will come out to support me.”