Andy Butler opened the scoring before further goals from Liam Mandeville and Matty Blair gave Rovers a commanding half-time lead.
Tom Pett and Fraser Franks pulled goals back for Stevenage, before Jamie Jones’ own goal appeared to end their comeback hopes.
But Rowan Liburd scored the hosts’ third with a minute left as Rovers desperately clung on to go one point clear at the top.
Doncaster had hit the front after Butler took advantage of poor defending to head home on 27 minutes.
Mandeville hit his sixth goal in as many games to double the visitors’ lead on 34 minutes and Blair further increased Doncaster’s advantage two minutes later with a fine volley.
Pett slotted home on 61 minutes, before Franks smashed home a brilliant half-volley on 72 minutes.
Jones bundled into his own net from John Marquis’ header, before Liburd struck in the 89th minute to set up a nervous finish.