The Latics moved out of the Premier League drop zone and up to 16th thanks to first-half strikes from Hugo Rodallega and Tom Cleverley, substitute Steven Fletcher prodding in a late reply for Wanderers that proved nothing more than a consolation.
Both sides went into the game knowing defeat would have seen them occupying last place following West Ham's 3-1 triumph at Fulham earlier in the day, and Martinez was delighted with the manner in which his team handled the situation.
"It was a very difficult game in terms of coming to Molineux with a lot to lose," Martinez said.
"We could have finished bottom of the league and that could have been on the players' minds and affected their performance – we are very young.
"But I felt that the maturity in the performance was fantastic and it showed how far we have come in the first half of the season. When you see other teams playing in front of you, it puts that extra bit of pressure on.
"Looking at the first half of the season, we have been a lot more consistent than last season, but we haven't been able to get the results that the performances sometimes deserve."
Martinez's opposite number Mick McCarthy played down the idea that knowing West Ham had won earlier at Fulham may have been a factor in his side's costly defeat.
"It wasn't for me, although I can't speak for individuals," McCarthy said.
"I think it is the goals we have conceded which determines the performance, not what has gone on before.
"There is only one way for us to go at this moment in time, with the games that we have got remaining.
"I know ultimately there are two ways we can go, but at the moment there is only one."