McIlroy won the Open Championship, WGC-Bridgestone Invitational and US PGA Championship in consecutive appearances and did not finish outside the top 25 in any of his 17 tour events.
The 25-year-old had already claimed the Arnold Palmer Award as the tour’s leading official money winner (£5.1m) and won the Byron Nelson Award for adjusted scoring average (68.83).
“It means a lot to win it for the second time in three years,” said McIlroy. “Being voted player of the year by your peers is very important.
“They are the guys you are trying to beat week in, week out and if they appreciate what you have done over the year, see the hard work that you’ve put in and the golf that you’ve played that means a lot.”
Yorkshire finished second in the men’s county finals at Devon. Their defeat to Cornwall on the opening day proved costly but they responded with wins over Surrey and Warwickshire. Captain Daryl Berry said: “I’m disappointed but my team battled well and we hung on to a hope that we might come out on top.”