The 17-year-old finished third on the 13.7km lap around Harrogate, just 10.93 seconds down on the winner, Aigul Gareeva of Russia.
Gareeva stopped the clock at 22 minutes 16.23 seconds on Parliament Street but it could have been a lot quicker, had she not overshot the final bend up the hill past Betty's and gone 10 yards down the King's Road past the Harrogate Convention Centre.
As it was, her time was good enough by 3.61 seconds to pip Shirin Van Anrooij of the Netherlands into silver medal position on a sunlight morning on the second day of the world championships.
It is the second successive bronze medal Backstedt has won in this race, replicating her feat of 12 months ago at the world championships in Innsbruck.
It is also Britain's second bronze medal of the world championships, following their third-place finish in the mixed team time-trial on Sunday.
"It feels incredible really, like to get a bronze medal at a home championships is just pretty incredible with all the crowds," said Backstedt.
"Everyone cheering me on, with being the last person off that was pretty scary, but the crowds kept me going all the way round so that was really nice. I'm really happy."