McMeeken joined Tigers from London Broncos a year ago and would have been out of contract at the end of next season.
The 21-year old made 20 appearances for Tigers this year - finishing with 17 successive games - and scored two tries.
“I’m delighted to have signed a new deal at this great club,” he said.
“I’m really looking forward to the new season and playing in front of our awesome fans and pushing for silverware,
“I’m loving every minute here at Cas, this place is my home.”
Tigers coach, Daryl Powell, added: “Mike proved last year he is a player with huge potential.
“His professionalism is outstanding as are the qualities in his game that we feel will take him to the top of his profession.
“I am delighted he has agreed to extend his contract for two further years to continue his growth as a player.”