Hosts Oldham are just one point above the drop zone after going seven games without a win ahead of the final match of the season.
Rovers chief Darren Ferguson gave a glimpse of the future as he handed a full league debut to 18-year-old Sheffield-born left-back Danny Amos.
The Northern Ireland Under-19 international took praise from his manager, who said: “He was a real outlet for us with the width down the left, and he should be delighted with that performance. It was a reward for the work we’ve done as a club during his development.
“He’s good with set-pieces and his delivery was excellent, we should have probably scored from one or two of them so his display was the most pleasing thing to take away from the game.
“I think we’ve had a problem with the balance of the team all season, I felt the game was a good opportunity for Danny to come in as he’s done really well for the development side this season.”
The Latics, who have been a third-tier club for 21 consecutive years, should have gone behind when Doncaster captain Andy Butler headed over early on.
Oldham striker Duckens Nazon was their biggest threat and was twice denied by goalkeeper Ian Lawlor, but John Marquis fired over from the edge of the area, Butler again headed over and Ben Whiteman wasted a chance for Rovers, who are unbeaten in five away matches.
Oldham Athletic: Placide, Hunt, Haymer, Sam Edmundson, Nepomuceno, Benyu, Pringle (Davies 65), Gardner, Nazon, Jack Byrne (McEleney 75), Doyle. Unused substitutes: de la Paz, Wilson, Holloway, Stott, Obadeyi.
Doncaster Rovers: Lawlor, Mason, Butler, Baudry, Amos, McCullough (May 74), Blair (Kongolo 71), Houghton, Whiteman, Marquis, Williams (Beestin 62). Unused substitutes: Alcock, Marosi, Anderson, Kiwomya.
Referee: C Sarginson (Staffordshire).