The woman, named locally as scientist Samantha Ho, 39, was found dead at a house in Curlew Place, St Neots, Cambridgeshire, after armed officers were called on Saturday.
Witnesses said her body and head were found separately.
A post-mortem examination found she died after suffering multiple cuts to the neck, Cambridgeshire Police said.
Timothy Allen, 40, of Curlew Place, St Neots, has been charged with murder and will appear at Peterborough Magistrates’ Court.
Allen was taken to Hinchingbrooke Hospital after being found with serious but not life-threatening injuries at the scene.
A Cambridgeshire Police spokesman said: “The death is being treated as an isolated incident and no one else is being sought in connection.
“Officers are in contact with the victim’s family and they are being kept up to date on the inquiry.
“There will also be extra police patrols in the area as inquiries at the property continue.”
Ms Ho had worked as a scientist for a bio-science company called Asterand since 2005.