The man in his 40s, who had "had a bit to drink" fell from Crown Point Bridge at Hunslet at around 12.45am.
Phil Rhodes, watch commander at Leeds Fire Station, said police officers had managed to pull the man to one side of the river before they got there.
"Someone had fallen from the bridge at Crown Point, and we got called by police, who were already there.
"We put a ladder in, put a line round him and two of the guys went in to assist getting him up the ladder.
"He'd had a bit to drink."
Crews from Hunslet, Rothwell and Wakefield also attended the incident.
In took about ten minutes to get the man out, before he was taken to hospital by paramedics.