Police launched the investigation after the man died last night.
Officers from South Yorkshire Police were called to a property in the town at around 8.20pm yesterday after receiving reports of a man with a head injury.
A statement from the force said: “Police are investigating the suspicious death of a 52-year-old man in Barnsley.
“Officers were called to a property at around 8.20pm last night, Saturday 22 August, to reports of a man with a head injury.
“The man has sadly died.”
A 17-year-old boy has been arrested in connection to the death.