Volunteers from the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) were called to the sea opposite Ackworth House, on the Filey Foreshore at around 11.30am yesterday (Sunday).
The lifeboat crew entered the water and Vanessa Thomas, a trained paramedic volunteer, carried out first aid before the woman was lifted onto the boat.
They returned to Coble Landing, Filey, where the woman was airlifted to Hull Royal Infirmary.
RNLI said it is not known how serious the woman's condition is.
Barry Robson, Filey lifeboat mechanic, said: “The boat was launched extremely quickly and the crew had soon recovered the lady from the water.
"At present, we do not know her condition, but I would like to thank all Filey RNLI crew for their prompt response and also Filey Coast Rescue Team, Filey Police and the Yorkshire Air Ambulance for helping.
"We have a doctor, three paramedics, a nurse and an ambulance technician on our crew here at Filey so the lady received the best possible first aid treatment.”
The RNLI said the rescue effort was launched quickly because the crew had just completed an exercise in the lifeboat and were already at the boathouse.