A blaze started deliberately close to the railway at Conisbrough, Doncaster, damaged signalling equipment and cabling last night.
Northern Rail said a 'very limited train service' will operate between Sheffield, Swinton and Doncaster until 9am this morning, then the line between Swinton and Doncaster will be closed for 24 hours to allow repairs to be carried out.
Buses will replace trains in both directions.
A Northern Rail spokesman said: "Due to a direct act of vandalism last night involving a fire near the railway at Conisbrough severe damage has been sustained to signalling equipment and cabling.
"As a result a very limited train service will be able to operate between Sheffield - Swinton - Doncaster in both directions until 9am.
"After this time the line between Swinton and Doncaster will be closed for up to 24 hours and buses will replace trains in both directions to allow Network Rail to carry out the necessary repairs to the damage.
"Customers are advised to change at Meadowhall or Doncaster for onward connections.
"We are continuing to work closely with our colleagues at Network Rail to keep the disruption down to a minimum and we are very sorry for the delay and inconvenience this will cause to your journey.
Other Northern routes in the area are not affected by this disruption and we can run a timetabled service between Sheffield - Barnsley -Wakefield Kirkgate - Leeds and between Sheffield - Swinton - Wakefield Westgate and Leeds.
"Services from the South of Sheffield, from Nottingham to Leeds will be able to run as timetabled, however services from Lincoln Central to Adwick will have to terminate at Sheffield."
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