Although the overall proportion across Whitehall is rising - hitting 44% in the first half of this year - many departments are falling well short and several have gone backwards.
Labour said this month’s figures showed the Government was set to miss its 50% aim - with 10 departments performing worse last year than in the previous 12 months.
Taking out the two best performers showed the proportion across the rest remained at just 30%, it said, painting the failure as part of a wider issue reflected in a lack of women in the cabinet.
Between April and September the Ministry of Justice appointed women to 102 of 185 vacancies, with only the Cabinet Office (three of four) and Communities and Local Government (two of four) also reaching 50%.
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport came close with 48% - but the MoD was one of six to prefer female candidates in fewer than a third of cases.
None of the three made by the Department for Education or the two by the Department for Transport went to women.
Appointments to the boards of public bodies are regulated by the Commissioner for Public Appointments which monitors equality issues.
In 2012/13 - the first year the statistics were published - 37.15% of appointments were of female candidates and 39.2% in 2013/14.
The only departments which hit 50% in 2013/14 were the Foreign Office - two of four - and the Home Office, 36 of 68.
Shadow equalities minister Gloria de Piero said: “David Cameron and Nick Clegg claim they want more women at the top of society but their Government’s actions tell a different story.”
But a Cabinet Office spokesman insisted it was “on track” to achieve 50 per cent.
“As part of this Government’s long-term economic plan, we want the very best people on the boards of our public bodies.
“So we have overhauled the appointments process to emphasise skills over experience and to encourage more women to apply for these important positions.”