Robert Mugabe: Is this the end of the line for ruthless tyrant who presided over bloodshed and persecution?The night's action triggered speculation of a coup, but the military's supporters praised it as a "bloodless correction".
Armed soldiers in armoured personnel carriers stationed themselves at key points in Harare, while Zimbabweans formed long lines at banks in order to withdraw the limited cash available, a routine chore in the country's ongoing financial crisis.
People looked at their phones to read about the army takeover and others went to work or to shops.
In an address to the nation after taking control of the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation, an army spokesman said early on Wednesday that the military was targeting "criminals" around Mugabe, and sought to reassure the country that order would be restored.
It was not clear where Mugabe, 93, and his wife were on Wednesday, but it seems they are in the custody of the military. "Their security is guaranteed," the army spokesman said.
"We wish to make it abundantly clear that this is not a military takeover," the army statement said. "We are only targeting criminals around (Mugabe) who are committing crimes that are causing social and economic suffering in the country in order to bring them to justice."
The spokesman added that "as soon as we have accomplished our mission, we expect that the situation will return to normalcy".
The army spokesman called on churches to pray for the nation. He urged other security forces to "cooperate for the good of our country," warning that "any provocation will be met with an appropriate response".
The statement called on troops to return to barracks immediately, with all leave cancelled.
Overnight, at least three explosions were heard in the capital, Harare, and military vehicles were seen in the streets.
The military actions appear to put the army in control of the country.
Army commander Constantino Chiwenga had threatened on Monday to "step in" to calm political tensions.
Mugabe's ruling ZANU-PF party responded by accusing the general of "treasonable conduct". But now Chiwenga appears to be in control.
The army has been praised by the nation's war veterans for carrying out "a bloodless correction of gross abuse of power".
Chris Mutsvangwa, chairman of the war veterans' association, told The Associated Press in Johannesburg that the military will return Zimbabwe to "genuine democracy" and make the country a "modern model nation".
Mutsvangwa and the war veterans are staunch allies of Emmerson Mnangagwa, who was fired from his post of vice president by Mugabe last week. Mnangagwa fled Zimbabwe last week but said he would return to lead the country.
The US Embassy closed to the public on Wednesday and encouraged citizens to shelter in place, citing "the ongoing political uncertainty through the night".
The British Embassy issued a similar warning, citing "reports of unusual military activity".
For the first time, this southern African nation is seeing an open rift between the military and Mugabe, the world's oldest head of state who has ruled since independence from white minority rule in 1980. The military has been a key pillar of his power.
Britons told to stay indoors amid 'unusual military activity'
British nationals in Zimbabwe's capital Harare are being advised to stay indoors amid reports of "unusual military activity".
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) issued the guidance in the early hours of Wednesday morning following political tensions in the African country.
President Robert Mugabe fired his deputy Emmerson Mnangagwa last week, with the 93-year-old leader having previously accused Mr Mnangagwa of plotting to oust him.
It has been reported the army commander has threatened to "step in" to calm political tensions and the sight of tanks in Harare has led to suggestions of a rift between the military and president.
The FCO guidance said: "Due to the uncertain political situation in Harare, including reports of unusual military activity, we recommend British nationals currently in Harare to remain safely at home or in their accommodation until the situation becomes clearer."
The army took control of the state Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation but the military aimed to reassure the country that a "military takeover" was not taking place.
A statement from the military said that President Mugabe was safe.
"We are only targeting criminals around him who are committing crimes that are causing social and economic suffering in the country in order to bring them to justice," the statement said.