The new development will see Taco Bell, Dunkin Donuts, Costa coffee, Burger King, TGI Fridays and Brazillian grill Estabulo.
Doncaster Council had to intervene after a private company was said to be 'shying away' from the plans and was 'too slow' to bring it forward.
The cost of developing the project is thought to be around £7.7 million and council bosses said this will be met from the 'Investment and Modernisation Fund' and will deliver a significant annual return for more than £400,000 in business rates.
It is anticipated that the development will be completed in Spring 2019.
The Herten Triangle, which sits between the Dome, the Vue Cinema and Asda, is owned by Doncaster Council. It was originally planned to be developed by a private sector developer but were 'unable to make the project viable' and 'attract the national restaurants needed' for the area.
Mayor Ros Jones met workers at the official groundbreaking ceremony on Thursday. She said she was 'delighted' the project was finally underway.
"This shows what local government can deliver and we've stepped in where the private sector was actually shying away," she said.
"We're going to deliver a £7.7 million investment to bring in an excess of £400,000 back to the local authority and deliver 200 jobs. This is about Doncaster growing it's economy, growing its jobs and delivering for the people of this borough.
"We were intent on delivering this, our private sector partner at the time was too slow in delivering this. This is about delivering for the people and delivering what we need it's about job, growth, the economy and therefore we can always borrow at preferential rates so we're going to bring back to the borough over £400,000 so it really is the right way forward for us to develop.
"What we did is we made sure we worked out to ensure we had sufficient international eateries coming here and working out what we could borrow and get that great partnership with Willmott Dixon and we do all the sums to make sure we're going to deliver for the people."
Mayor Jones also praised construction firm Willmott Dixon for bringing on increasing apprenticeships.
Anthony Dillon, managing director for the north at Willmott Dixon, said: "We are excited about starting work on Herten Triangle. Our recent work in Doncaster, which includes the new award winning National College for High Speed Rail and building over 100 new homes, is helping to drive growth in the region and we'll be looking to further this by ensuring wherever possible that our project spend is with companies based in and around Doncaster."