Adeboyejo, 22, will stay with the U’s for the rest of the season.
The London-born forward struggled to establish himself with Rovers after joining on a season-long loan last summer, netting just twice in thirty appearances so far this term.
It prompted his recall by Barnsley and he has immediately headed back out to Cambridge.
Adeboyejo netted four times in 31 games for the Reds in last season’s promotion campaign.
The former Leyton Orient player is the latest player to leave Oakwell, with Cameron McGeehan and Jordan Green joining Portsmouth and Newport County respectively for the rest of the season earlier this month.
Mallik Wilks has also joined Hull City on loan with a view to a full-time move in the close season.
The likes of Dimitri Cavare and Mamadou Thiam are also attracting interest and the club are hopeful of movement shortly.
Other fringe players could also be allowed to leave on loan.