The much-travelled striker marked his first start in an Owls shirt with a goal after just six minutes.
But Wednesday were punished for missing a glut of chances – including a Barry Bannan penalty – before Ryan Bowman netted an equaliser for Shrewsbury.
The Owls made four changes from the side which lost 3-0 at Plymouth last weekend, with a full debut for Berahino.
The 28-year-old former Stoke City and West Brom forward was looking for his first goal since netting for Charleroi in Belgium against Cercle Bruge back in October 2020.
And it came inside six minutes. Bannan’s corner was headed in at the far post, Berahino emerging through a sea of bodies.
It was reward for a bright start from the hosts, who had already seen Lee Gregory just fail to get his head on Liam Palmer’s teasing cross, while Olamide Shodipo was thwarted at a cut-back.
Berahino – who last netted in English football way back in December 2018, the winner for Stoke against Millwall in the Championship - could have added a second three minutes later, but this time headed wide from Shodipo’s cross, hammering the turf in frustration.
Wednesday came into the game with a 100 per cent record at Hillsborough in League One – winning both their opening games against Doncaster Rovers and Fleetwood – but had slipped down the table following back-to-back away defeats.
The Owls spurned a glorious chance to make it 2-0 on 23 minutes, Bannan dragging his penalty wide of Marko Marosi’s goal after Shodipo was tripped inside the box.
Berahino then slipped in Lee Gregory but the striker shot straight at Marosi.
Darren Moore’s team had not conceded a home goal in their first four games at S6.
And Shrewsbury offered little in the opening half hour to suggest that record would be broken.
But a horrendous mistake from goalkeeper Bailey Peacock-Farrell, dropping the ball at his near post, allowed former York City forward Bowman to scramble the ball over the line on 37 minutes.
Going in level at half-time, Wednesday would have been scratching their heads to why they were not well in front.
Shodipo tried his luck from long-range, at the start of the second half, only to find the 15th row of the Kop.
The contest was more open now. Town’s Luke Leahy burst through, but pulled his shot wide of Peacock-Farrell’s goal.
While at the other end, the impressive Shodipo put the ball in the net, but the linesman’s flag pulled play back for offside.
Josh Vella forced Peacock-Farrell into a late save, but for the majority of the 21,976 crowd, the over-riding emotion was frustration.
Gregory had a stoppage-time header which cleared the crossbar, but there was to be no late winner.
Sheffield Wednesday: Peacock-Farrell, Palmer, Iorfa, Dunkley, Hutchinson, Hunt, Bannan, Shodipo (Kamberi 76), Adeniran (Wing 73), Gregory, Berahino (Corbeanu 60). Unused substitutes: Wildsmith, Dele-Bashiru, Johnson, Sow.
Shrewsbury: Marosi, Leahy, Ebanks-Landell, Pennington, Pierre, Whalley (Nurse 68), Cosgrove (Udoh 68), Vela, Bowman, Davis, Bennett. Unused substitutes: Gregory, Ogbeta, Bloxham, Daniels, Leshabela.
Referee: B Toner.