While the majority of the field struggled with greens described as “like glass” by 1991 winner Ian Woosnam and “pretty crispy” by former Open champion Henrik Stenson, Rose overcame a slow start with a stunning burst of scoring at Augusta National.
After playing his first seven holes in two over par, the Olympic gold medallist covered the next 10 in nine under thanks to an eagle on the eighth and birdies on the ninth, 10th, 12th, 13th, 15th, 16th and 17th.
That ensured Rose, who lost out in a play-off to Sergio Garcia in 2017, ended the first round in the lead for the fourth time in his career, matching the tournament record set by six-time champion Jack Nicklaus.
“I guess the good news is I don’t know what happened, that’s often when you play your best golf and get into the nice rhythm or flow,” Rose said.
“I didn’t panic being two over through seven. I knew this was a day not to play yourself out of the tournament; the course had a lot of teeth to it.
“The pins were relatively fair so good golf shots could be rewarded and to be nine under for my last 11, you can never quite see that coming here at Augusta National.”
Japan’s Hideki Matsuyama and Brian Harman were the only other players to break 70 with rounds of 69, and 2018 champion Patrick Reed is part of a four-strong group on two under.
Defending champion Dustin Johnson, who made just four bogeys in 72 holes in November, carded three in his first 16 and then made a double bogey on the 18th as he returned a 74.
“Two over is not a terrible score today,” Johnson said hours before Rose’s heroics.
“I feel like I am still right in it, just need to shoot a good score tomorrow. I would have liked to have finished a little better but the course was playing tough.”
Johnson’s in-form playing partner Lee Westwood struggled to a 78 while Rory McIlroy, who needs to win the Masters to complete the career grand slam, hit his father with a wayward approach to the seventh and eventually signed for a 76.
Spain’s Jon Rahm, who only arrived in Augusta on Wednesday after his wife Kelley gave birth to their first child at the weekend, carded a level-par 72 after dropping a shot on the last.
Woosnam, who marked the 30th anniversary of his victory with a highly-creditable 76 despite a pulled groin muscle, admitted he was taken aback by the firmness of the greens after not playing a practice round on Wednesday.
“I didn’t play yesterday, I just did some chipping and putting and hit a few balls and I went on that first green and I thought, ‘What’s happened here?’” the 63-year-old former Ryder Cup captain said.
“It was just like - it looked like glass. If it dries out this afternoon, it wouldn’t surprise me to see them have to put some water on the greens. This is about as fast as I’ve seen it.”
Sandy Lyle’s record 37th consecutive appearance in the Masters had earlier become one to forget for the two-time major winner.
Lyle, who became the first British player to claim a green jacket in 1988, made an excellent start with a birdie on the second, but he bogeyed the next and then took seven on the fourth after thinning a bunker shot over the green.
Further shots went on the fifth and sixth and although he did birdie the eighth, Lyle eventually signed for a nine-over-par 81.
The 63-year-old had shared the record for most consecutive appearances by a non-American with South African Gary Player, the three-time champion who started every tournament from 1974 to 2009. Arnold Palmer holds the overall record of 50 from 1955-2004.
Leading first round scores (USA unless stated, Par 72):
(a) denotes amateurs
65 Justin Rose (Eng)
69 Brian Harman (USA), Hideki Matsuyama (Jpn)
70 Christiaan Bezuidenhout (Rsa), Patrick Reed (USA), Webb Simpson (USA), Will
71 Tyrrell Hatton (Eng), Si Woo Kim (Kor), Jason Kokrak (USA), Shane Lowry
72 Cameron Champ (USA), Mackenzie Hughes (Can), Kevin Kisner (USA), Matt Fitzpatrick (Eng), Marc
Leishman (Aus), Jon Rahm (Spa), Xander Schauffele (USA), Michael Thompson (USA)
73 Abraham Ancer (Mex), Paul Casey (Eng), Corey Conners (Can), Viktor Hovland
(Nor), Scottie Scheffler (USA), Henrik Stenson (Swe), Hudson Swafford (USA),
Brendon Todd (USA), Gary Woodland (USA)
74 Stewart Cink (USA), Harris English (USA), Tommy Fleetwood (Eng), Dustin
Johnson (USA), Matt Jones (Aus), Brooks Koepka (USA), Martin Laird (Sco),
Bernhard Langer (Ger), Robert MacIntyre (Sco), Francesco Molinari (Ita),
Sebastian Munoz (Col), Ryan Palmer (USA), Ian Poulter (Eng), Charl Schwartzel
(Rsa), Matt Wallace (Eng), Bubba Watson (USA), Bernd Wiesberger (Aut)
75 Daniel Berger (USA), Phil Mickelson (USA), Kevin Na (USA), Joaquin Niemann
(Chi), Jose Maria Olazabal (Spa), Robert Streb (USA), Jimmy Walker (USA)
76 Dylan Frittelli (Rsa), Sergio Garcia (Spa), Lanto Griffin (USA), Jim Herman
(USA), Billy Horschel (USA), Rory McIlroy (NIrl), Charles Osborne (USA), Danny
Willett (Eng), Matthew Wolff (USA), Ian Woosnam (Wal)
77 Jason Day (Aus), Zach Johnson (USA)
78 Brian Gay (USA), Matt Kuchar (USA), Victor Perez (Fra), Mike Weir (Can), Lee
79 Fred Couples (USA), Chengtsung Pan (Tai), Vijay Singh (Fij)
80 Ty Strafaci (USA)
81 Sandy Lyle (Sco)
82 Joe Long (Eng), Carlos Ortiz (Mex)
84 Larry Mize (USA)