UK Anti-Doping (UKAD) confirmed Chase tested positive for benzoylecgonine – a metabolite of cocaine – following an in-competition test on July 14.
Chase played for Widnes Vikings in a 36-8 home defeat by Wakefield Trinity that evening.
He was provisionally suspended the following month after Vikings were notified of the test result by UKAD and the Rugby Football League.
UKAD chief executive Nicole Sapstead said: “As an experienced rugby league player who has represented both New Zealand Maori and England, as well as Super League clubs, Castleford Tigers and Salford Red Devils, Rangi Chase has tarnished his career with this sanction.
“His two-year ban serves as a stark warning to athletes about the very real consequences of taking recreational drugs whilst competing in sport.”
Chase, 31, is banned from all sport from July 14, 2017 until midnight on July 13, 2019.
The New Zealand-born half-back joined Tigers in 2009 and was Man of Steel two years later.
He joined Salford Red Devils in 2014 and also had a spell at Leigh Centurions before returning to Tigers last year.
He played eight games for Tigers in 2017 before joining Widnes.