Murray is set to play his first major since Wimbledon 2017 and could have been drawn against any of the top seeds, but instead landed world No 445 Duckworth.
The Scot, who won the US Open in 2012, is only seven matches back from a hip injury that derailed his career for almost a year.
Yorkshire’s British No 1 Kyle Edmund, meanwhile, has been drawn against unseeded Italian, Paolo Lorenzi.
Seeded 16th, Edmund has never got past the fourth round and is on course for a quarter-final with Rafael Nadal if he gets that far.
Defending champion Nadal opens up against compatriot David Ferrer. Second seed and five-time champion Roger Federer faces Japan’s Yoshihito Nishioka, while Novak Djokovic takes on Hungarian Marton Fucsovics.
The women’s draw has not been so kind to unseeded Johanna Konta, who has paid the price for her ranking plummeting after a poor year and will face sixth seed Carolina Garcia.
She is the only British woman in the main draw by right.
Serena Williams, seeded 17th, will face Pole Magda Linette, while world No 1 Simona Halep faces Kaia Kanepi.
Defending champion Sloane Stephens meets Evgenia Medvedeva.