Harrogate’s 22-year-old Laugher, the 2016 Olympic champion in the synchronised 3m event and silver medallist in the individual competition, could only manage a fifth-placed finish, while City of Sheffield’s Haslam came 11th of 12.
Gold was taken by China’s Xie Siyi, whose total from his six routines was 547.10. Germany’s Patrick Hausding took silver with 526.15 and Russia’s Ilya Zakharov won bronze after scoring 505.90.
Laugher long remained in contention for a medal but came narrowly short with a total of 500.65.
He had also finished fourth alongside Chris Mears in Saturday’s synchronised event, having won the individual bronze in the last World Championships in Russia in 2015.
Haslam’s score, in his first World Championships, was 452.90.
Grace Reid, 21, will compete in the women’s final on Friday after progressing from the semi-finals in eighth place with a total of 309.60.
In the semi-finals, City of Leeds diver Laugher had scored 498.75 points to finish second behind Olympic champion Cao Yuan of China, while 20-year-old Haslam qualified in 10th position.